Some actors are very willing to act in POC missions, and understand their mandates accordingly, but are reluctant to engage in R2P, considering it as jeopardy to their mandates. R2P and POC share similar humanitarian concerns, yet their specificity is important. Libya is also not the first time that the Security Council has authorized the use of force to protect civilians.
The bombing of Bosnian Serb military targets around Sarajevo in , aimed at protecting the civilian population, was under the solid authorization of the Security Council. Also, the no-fly zone, authorized by SCR was not a paper-tiger; it was enforced with air strikes several times in the s. What I regard as a novelty with SCR and is that this is the first joint utilization of the concepts POC and R2P to stop a potential mass slaughter of civilians.
R2P was invoked by the Security Council immediately when, on 26 February , it considered the urgent need to protect the Libyan people from atrocities and unanimously adopted SCR The Council considered that the widespread and systematic attacks against the civilian population could amount to crimes against humanity, thus referring to one of the atrocity crimes and triggering the applicability of R2P. Libya not only ignored SCR , but committed clear breaches of it by refusing to permit humanitarian aid convoys into the besieged cities of Misrata and Ajdabiya.
Although the search for a peaceful solution continued, gradually most governments and regional organizations realized that diplomatic efforts alone would not protect civilians in great danger.
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On 12 March, the League of Arab States called on the Security Council to immediately impose a no-fly zone on the Libyan air force and to establish safe areas as a precautionary measure to protect civilians. SCR brings POC to life, as the situation escalates from a riot not qualifiable as armed conflict into a civil war. This is an important legal determination — by making it, the Security Council could assert its decisions on obligations under international humanitarian law and Geneva Conventions, applicable in time of civil war.
It also adds war crimes jurisdiction into what has already been established, but more vaguely, as R2P obligations in SCR on the basis of potential crimes against humanity. In SCR , the sister concepts POC and R2P join their legal, moral and political scopes, and drive the Security Council to utilize all its overwhelming power under Chapter VII — including use of force — to protect civilian populations and civilian-populated areas.
One interesting caveat is that when a situation is qualified as civil war, as in SCR , jus ad bellum the right of the Libyan government to fight the rebels also comes to life, in addition to jus in belli protection of civilians. Accordingly, any military support for the Libyan rebels with air strikes, or with military supplies, that violate the arms embargo imposed by SCR becomes extremely problematic in international law.
SCR demanded an immediate end of violence and urged Libya to act with utmost restraint, to respect human rights, to ensure safety of all foreign nationals, to allow safe passage of humanitarian and medical supplies, and to lift media restrictions. It decided to impose: 1 the referral of the situation to the ICC; 2 an arms embargo, strengthened with a call upon States to inspect all cargo that may upon reasonable grounds be believed to contain prohibited items; 3 a travel ban against sixteen Libyan officials, among them Qaddafi himself, some of his family members, and military leaders involved in violence; and 4 an asset freeze against six designated individuals — Qaddafi, four of his sons and one of his daughters.
There are other potential explanations involving cultural expectations. Girls seem to be encouraged to be competent , while boys are encouraged to be confident , research shows, and school today requires a lot of self-control , which most boys develop later. Once people start working, women face sexism and a host of other inequalities many related to motherhood. Testosterone, which all females are exposed to in utero, might be another contributor.
O Brother, What Art Thou?
Women are penalized, research shows , when they show many of the same behaviors that benefit men in the workplace. The new study was focused on studying twins and did not analyze these other issues. Also, the findings are specific to people born in Norway several decades ago. But it suggests broader effects, said David Figlio, an economist and dean of the School of Education and Social Policy at Northwestern, who wrote the paper with colleagues at Northwestern and the Norwegian School of Economics.
Figlio said. The study, published in PNAS, was of , people, including 13, twins — everyone born in Norway from to — in addition to records about their family, education and work. Women with a male twin were 15 percent less likely to graduate from high school than women with a female twin, and those who went to college were 4 percent less likely to finish it. They had a 12 percent lower probability of being married, and a 6 percent lower probability of having children.
Notably, the research did not show an effect on the careers people pursued.
Among those who graduated from college, women with a male twin were no more likely to pursue degrees in traditionally male-dominated fields like science, engineering, math and economics. The study did not find that men had long-term effects from having a female twin.
The battle to separate Safa and Marwa
Hayley credits the attention of her family and others with helping her achieve. An honor student in high school, she is now studying visual communication and digital media arts at a college within commuting distance of her home.
I feel like without them, I would not have made it this far in my life," she said. Psychologists and researchers say that families who have a network of supporters — people who can lend a hand, or an ear — cope better with stress than families who don't. Parenting two children with special needs is particularly challenging, according to one of the few studies focused on this issue. Researchers studied mothers who had a teenage or adult child with autism, and a second child with autism or a different disability. Those mothers had more symptoms of depression and anxiety than mothers who had just one child with a disability.
They also had more problems with family cohesion emotional bonding and with adapting to new situations or needs. Educators and therapists often recommend that parents use schedules and routines to help their children with autism manage anxiety and cope with change. Perhaps being less flexible — sticking to the family's plans — may simply be a coping skill, some researchers speculated.
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Amanda Olsen was concerned about autism, but only in her youngest daughter, who is now 8. She would listen, but she wouldn't look at you," she said. So she made her an appointment for a psychological evaluation. Around the same time, one of her older daughters told her that she thought she might have attention deficit disorder. So Mrs. Olsen arranged for her to be tested, as well. She was not particularly surprised when her youngest daughter received an autism diagnosis. But she had not suspected ASD in her older daughter, at least not until she had to fill out questionnaires for their evaluations.
The older girl, now 13, was diagnosed with a milder form of autism, which used to be called Asperger's Syndrome. One common symptom of autism is an insistence on sameness — having things be a certain way, at a certain time. But two children with autism, even sisters, may not want things to be the same way, at the same time. And that can cause difficulties. Olsen, who lives in Idaho. But it's not. One child wants to be left alone, while the other child wants to have an interaction that annoys the first child. For me, it's a matter of stopping and helping each one to see what's going on, and that can be exhausting, and trying to help each get control of herself.
Olsen educates both children at home, along with another daughter and two stepdaughters. The five girls range in age from 8 to I wanted to connect with them," she said. The autism diagnoses led to "crazy Wednesday," one day every week when three of her children have four therapy appointments. The two girls with ASD see occupational therapists, who help them with sensory issues and handwriting. Many people with autism are over- or under- responsive to their senses, such as noise, touch, vision, or balance. They also may have trouble with muscle or hand skills. After the girls were diagnosed, a therapist told Mrs.
Olsen that their autism likely "didn't come from nowhere," she recalled. As she learned more about autism, she came upon a book by a woman with Asperger's Syndrome and recognized herself in its pages. Many, like Mrs. Olsen, were born before Asperger's Syndrome became a diagnosis in Olsen does not have an ASD diagnosis, nor is she seeking one. This kinship with her daughters on the spectrum helps her relate to them in ways that people who do not have autistic symptoms may not, she said.
An Early Arrival, An Early Diagnosis
Researchers interested in autism genetics have studied the unaffected parents and siblings from families with multiple children with autism. These family members are more likely to have conversational and social difficulties than. That may suggest an inherited link to autism in multiplex families, but it does not mean that autism is more severe in those children. One study found that, as a group, children with autism from multiplex families had lower levels of autistic symptoms than children who were the only member of their family with ASD.
Another study reached similar conclusions. In fact, it found that some children with autism from multiplex families had symptoms so mild that they fell below the threshold for autism on one test used to diagnose ASD.
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Perhaps in multiplex families, autism is the result of small genetic changes passed down from one or both parents, scientist theorize. In families with no history of autism, it's possible that autism may arise from a significant genetic change that occurred for the first time in the child with ASD. Many genetic studies are trying to test these and other theories.
Despite the additional challenges, parenting multiple children with autism also brings additional rewards. For the Yeager family, caring for Aaron may have sparked a desire for independence in his sisters, Mrs. Yeager said. They like to help their brother, and pull together as a family, but they also are self-reliant, she said. My oldest rarely came to us for help with schoolwork, and Hayley became that way, too," she said. Raising children with autism can give a parent a unique perspective, an appreciation of things that might otherwise be taken for granted with typical children, Mrs.
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