Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People


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In the Preamble to the Hague Convention II on Land War, the Martens Clause was introduced as a compromise wording for the dispute between the Great Powers who considered francs-tireurs to be unlawful combatants subject to execution on capture and smaller states who maintained that they should be considered lawful combatants. Paragraph 4 to armed conflicts " Hence depending on the perspective of a state's government, a resistance movement may or may not be labelled a terrorist group based on whether the members of a resistance movement are considered lawful or unlawful combatants and whether they are recognized as having a right to resist occupation.

Mining and the living materiality of mountains in Andean societies

The Oxford English Dictionary records use of the word "resistance" in the sense of organised opposition to an invader from The term is still strongly linked [ by whom? Using the term "resistance" to designate a movement meeting the definition prior to World War II might be considered by some [ who? Resistance movements can include any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government , or administration. This frequently includes groups that consider themselves to be resisting tyranny or dictatorship.

Some resistance movements are underground organizations engaged in a struggle for national liberation in a country under military occupation or totalitarian domination. Tactics of resistance movements against a constituted authority range from nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience , to guerrilla warfare and terrorism , or even conventional warfare if the resistance movement is strong enough. Any government facing violent acts from a resistance movement usually condemns such acts as terrorism , even when such attacks target only the military or security forces.

Germany itself also had an anti-Nazi German resistance movement in this period. When we talk about geographies of resistance, we often take for granted that resistance takes place in the spaces where domination, power, or oppression is present. So, resistance is often understood as something that always opposes to power or domination.

However, some scholars believe and argue that looking at resistance in relation to only power and domination will not provide us a full understanding of the actual nature of resistance. Not all power, domination or oppression leads to resistance, and not all cases of resistance are against or to oppose what we categorize as "power".

In fact, they believe that resistance has its own characteristics and spatialities. In Steve Pile's "Opposition, political identities and spaces of resistance", geographies of resistance show:. That people are positioned differently in unequal and multiple power relationships, that more or less powerful people are active in the constitution of unfolding relationships of authority, meaning and identity, that these activities are contingent, ambiguous and awkwardly situated, but that resistance seeks to occupy, deploy and create alternative spatialities from those defined through oppression and exploitation.

We can better understand resistance by accounting different perspectives and by breaking the presumptions that resistance is always against power. In fact, resistance should be understood not only in relations to domination and authority, but also through other experiences, such as "desire and anger, capacity and ability, happiness and fear, dreaming and forgetting", [7] meaning that resistance is not always about the dominated versus the dominator, the exploited versus the exploiter, or the oppressed versus the oppressor.

There are various forms of resistance for various reasons, which then can be, again, classified as violent and nonviolent resistance and "other" which is unclear. Different geographical spaces can also make different forms of resistance possible or impossible and more effective or less effective. The reason is that these variations can define the nature and outcome of resistance. Harvey , [ citation needed ] who looked at resistance in relations to capitalist economic exploitation, took on a fire accident happened in the Imperial Foods chicken processing plant in Hamlet, North Carolina in , in which 20 of workers were killed and 56 were injured due to poor working conditions and protections.

He compared this accident with a similar fire accident at Triangle Shirtwaist Company, New York, , killing workers, which caused a labor resistance by , people. For an effective resistance, he proposed that four tasks should be undertaken:. First, social justice must be defined from the perspective of the oppressed; second, a hierarchy of the oppressions has to be defined….. There are many forms of resistance in relations to different power dominations and actors.

Some resistance takes place in order to oppose, change, or reform the exploitation of the capitalist economic systems and the capitals, while other resistance takes place against the state or authority in power. For example, LGBT social movements [9] is an example of resistance that challenges and tries to reform the existing cultural norms in many societies. Resistance can also be mapped in various scales ranging from local to national to regional and to global spaces. We can look at a big-scale resistance movement such as Anti-globalization movement [10] that tries to resist the global trend of capitalist economic system.

Or we can look at the Internal resistance to South African apartheid , [11] which took place at national level.

Resistance movement - Wikipedia

Most, if not all, social movements can be considered as some forms of resistance. Not all resistance takes place in physical spaces or geographies but in "other spaces" as well.


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Some resistance happens in the form of Protest Art [12] or in the form of music. Music can be used and has been used as a tool or space to resist certain oppression or domination. Gray-Rosendale, L.


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In the age of advanced IT and mass consumption of social media , resistance can also occur in the cyberspace. For example, sometimes people have to struggle within or fight against their inner spaces, with their consciousness and, sometimes, with their fear before they can resist in the physical spaces.

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In other cases, people sometimes simply resist to certain ideology, belief, or culture norms within their minds. These kinds of resistance are less visible but very fundamental parts of all forms of resistance. Some definitions of resistance movement have proved controversial. According to Joint Publication , the United States Department of Defense defines a resistance movement as "an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability".

In strict military terminology, a resistance movement is simply that; it seeks to resist change the policies of a government or occupying power. The sixth and last banquet ended in the early evening. However, from a local perspective, this community did not just consist of Qamawarans but also included the earth-beings that constitute Qamawara. This sociality is mediated by the materiality of food, of bodies being fed, of places where people cohabitate.

It is only through their materiality that these beings can provide food and living spaces to humans, pasture for animals and productivity to the seeds. This contradicts many studies that have characterized apus and wamanis as immaterial spirits e. Other, but fewer, studies are rather ambivalent, framing them as spirits but describing them as the places themselves Fuenzalida, ; Gose, ; Morote, ; Salazar-Soler, To frame these beings as spirits seems plausible partly because, in some contexts, they present themselves not as earth-beings but as humans such as rich landlords e.

Earls, : 67; Gose, : ; Isbell, : ; Morote, : This, however, does not make them spirits. Just as a living human has animu — an individual animating force allowing him or her to move, see, listen, and so on La Riva, — all named places have theirs.

In contrast, and due to their higher power, places understand and intervene in human lives with great ease, punishing or rewarding humans according to their somehow opaque criteria. It is also due to this difference in power that humans have to constantly give food to places.

Neglecting or improperly feeding them provokes their anger, and results in illness, poor harvest, or ultimately being devoured by them. An example showing the importance of this material extraction is reported by Peter Gose for Antabamba Apurimac in the late s. Gose, : Underground mining not only mutilates the body of the mountains but ultimately threatens their fertility and, hence, their capacity to provide food and sustain life. Given the extraction of parts of their bodies, it is not surprising that these mountains are prone to anger and notably hungry.

Mountains that do not regularly receive food eat humans, but mountains that have been mined have stronger reasons for doing so. Mining presupposes a reciprocal relation between those who extract the mineral and the earth-being that is allowing this extraction. Local community members usually assume that mining is only possible if the engineers and the mountain have made a prior agreement.

This emerges through a diagrammatic iconicity 4 between agriculture and mining activity in which the mined earth-being as the agricultural lands is feminine. Just as agriculture is framed as a sexual act in which male agriculturalists put seeds in a female earth, the miners penetrate the earth to extract minerals. Miners in Huancavelica said that the earth had given birth when they found a new vein Salazar-Soler, : — Miners in Oruro gave food offerings to the mine not only for preventing accidents — i.

Similar ideas were reported also for the cooperative miners of Potosi Absi, : Where Andean peoples became involved in underground mining they performed practices of food-giving to the earth-beings from whom the minerals were being extracted. These practices have a similar structure to those carried out in agricultural contexts: before consuming coca leaves, miners routinely offered them to the earth-beings being mined and twice a year they delivered complex food offerings with the help of experts.

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The latter was also done whenever there was a clear sign that the mine was hungry, such as when a fatal accident took place. The ethnography is quite consistent on this: Nash : — for underground tin mines in Oruro Bolivia during the s; Salazar-Soler : — for their counterparts in Huancavelica Peru during the early s; and Absi : — for small-scale cooperative miners in Potosi Bolivia during the mid s.

Normally the mountains are associated with celestial figures, such as condors or angels Abercrombie, ; Gose, , but in the case of underground mining, they are associated with the devil. Taussig suggests that in agricultural contexts people work within the morality of gift exchange and therefore are not alienated from their labour power. In contrast, in underground mining, people work for a wage, alienated from their labour and from the ore that they have extracted, which becomes a commodity to be sold in the international market.

Miners who grew up in a social world organized by gift exchange, still unfamiliar with commodity fetishism, experience their place in mining production and capitalist exchange as unnatural and evil. All these beings are morally ambiguous, with the right material capacity all can give or take life, and all have voracious appetites when they are not properly fed.

Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People
Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People
Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People
Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People
Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People
Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People
Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People
Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power Among an Andean People

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